ESD Test Suite Examples

Money to buy the dog arrived.

Linguistic Characterization

Instrumental relative clauses are a subtype of infinitival relative clauses. Their distinguishing feature is in the connection between the head noun and the relative clause: in this construction, the head noun fills the role of an instrumental adjunct with respect to the relative clause. There is no lexical item carrying the instrumental semantics, however. This is provided by the construction (as with_p).

Motivating Examples

The treebanked examples for this phenomenon range from ones where with_p seems a natural paraphrase to more subtle examples:

This construction is distinguished from quasi-modal infinitivals in the relationship between the head noun and the relative clause, and in that the quasi-modal infinitivals but not instrumental relatives can serve as the complement of the copula. Quasi-modal infinitival examples:

ERS Fingerprints

  h:with_p[ARG1 e, ARG2 x]
  h:[ARG0 e]
  h:[ARG0 x]


Open Questions

Grammar Version

ERG 1212

More Information

ErgSemantics/InstrumentalRelatives (last edited 2015-06-04 17:09:15 by EmilyBender)

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